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Brief on Railway Electrification

 

1. Historical Background of Railway Electrification

Railway Electrification made a modest beginning with the inauguration of first electric train between Bombay VT and Kurla Harbour on 3rd February 1925 on then existing GIP Railway system at 1500 V DC. Heavy gradients on the Western Ghats necessitated introduction of electric traction on Central Railway upto Igatpuri on North East line and Pune on South East line. 1500 Volt DC traction was introduced on suburban section of Western Railway between Colaba and Borivili on 05.01.1928 and Madras Beach and Tambram of Southern Railway on 11.05.1931. This was primarily to meet the growing traffic in these metros. Thus, before the dawn of Independence, India had 388 KM of electrification on DC traction.

In the post Independence era, electrification of Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway was taken up on 3000 Volt DC during the First Five Year Plan period and completed in 1958. The first EMU services were inaugurated in Howrah-Sheoraphulli section by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India on 14.12.1957.

25 kV AC system of traction emerged as an economical system of electrification as a result of extensive research and trials in Europe, particularly on French Railways (SNCF). Indian Railways decided in 1957 to adopt 25 kV AC system of electrification as a standard, with SNCF as their consultant in the initial stages.

In the wake of industrial development, in the Eastern region, due to the setting up of steel plants, large scale movement of Iron and Coal, substantial growth in freight traffic, which could not be managed by steam traction, electrification and dieselisation had to be introduced in early sixties to cope up with the growing traffic.

The first section electrified on 25 kV AC system was Raj Kharswan-Dongoaposi of South Eastern Railway in the year 1960. With a view to provide continuity of traction system, Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway and Madras Beach Tambaram section of Southern Railway were converted to 25 kV AC system by 1968.

The manufacture of Electric Multiple Units (EMUs) required for Kolkata suburban services was taken up indigenously at Integral Coach Factory (ICF), Chennai and first EMU rolled out during September 1962.

Considering the various limitations in existing 1500 V DC traction systems in Central Railway and Western Railway, a decision was taken to convert to 25 kV AC traction during 1996-97. Conversion from DC traction to AC traction is under progress.

2. Organisation and setup of Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE)

Railway Electrification (RE) office was initially set up in Calcutta as PORE (Project office for Railway Electrification) during the First Five Year Plan period, when Electrification of Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway was taken up.

A General Manager was posted for the Railway Electrification Organisation set up at Calcutta in 1959. In 1961, Northern Railway Electrification office was set up at Allahabad for electrification of Mughalsarai-New Delhi section. This office was headed by an Engineer -in- Chief.

On recommendation of J. Raj Committee report in 1978, a number of Electrification works were included in the Pink Book (book containing works approved by the Parliament for execution). For proper controlling, monitoring and execution of Railway Electrification works in different Zonal Railways, the concept of Railway Electrification headquarter came into being.

Since most of the sanctioned electrification works were falling in the Central and Southern regions of the country, the headquarter of Railway Electrification was set up at Nagpur and functioned under the charge of an Additional General Manager from 1982 to 1984. Railway Electrification office was shifted to Allahabad under Additional General Manager with effect from January 1985.  A regular General Manager was posted at Central Organisation For Railway Electrification, Allahabad from July 1987 on wards which is continuing till date.

The headquarters office of Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE) is headed by General Manager and assisted by Electrical, S&T, Civil, Store, Personnel, Vigilance and associate Finance departments. Presently, nine RE project offices are functioning viz. Ambala, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Lucknow, Jaipur, Secunderabad, Gorakhpur, Danapur, New Jalpaigudi and Jabalpur each headed by a Chief Project Manager.

3. Progress of Railway Electrification

In the wake of industrial development, in the Eastern region, due to the setting up of steel plants, large scale movement of Iron and Coal, substantial growth in freight traffic, which could not be managed by steam traction, electrification and dieselisation had to be introduced in early sixties to cope up with the growing traffic. After the completion of Second Five Year Plan, Indian Railways had electrified 216 RKM on 25 kV AC. During the Third Plan, along with considerable indigenisation, electrification was extended over another 1678 RKM. The pace of electrification, however, slowed down until the oil crisis of seventies. The second oil crisis in particular brought to the fore the need for evolving a long term policy for electrification to reduce the dependence of Railways on petroleum based energy.

In the context of shift from petroleum based energy in transport sector, the Secretaries Committee on energy headed by Cabinet Secretary decided in July 1980 that Indian Railways should speed up electrification at a pace of 1000 Route Kms/year. Accordingly, the pace of electrification was considerably speeded up and Indian Railways achieved progress of 2812 RKM during the Seventh Plan, 2708 RKM during Eighth Plan and 2484 RKM during Ninth Plan, 1810 RKM during Tenth Plan, 4556 RKM during Eleventh Plan. During the two years of Twelth Plan 2667 RKM has been electrified.

Six major trunk routes of Golden Quadrilateral and diagonals viz Delhi - Delhi - Mumbai via Central and Western Railways, Delhi - Chennai, Mumbai - Calcutta and Howrah - Chennai have already been fully electrified. Electrification of remaining Mumbai - Chennai Route (Guntakal - Pune) is in progress.

A total of 24891 RKM has been electrified up to 31.03.2014 on Indian Railways, mostly on heavy density routes. This constitutes about 38.4% of total Indian Railway network. At present, approximately 51.4% of passenger traffic and 66.5% freight traffic is operated on electric traction. The XIth Plan target for electrification was set at 6500 RKM and realized is 4556 RKM.

4. Important landmarks of Railway Electrification:

S.No.

Date & Year

Railway

RKMs

Landmarks

1.

03.02.1925

Central

16

First electric train on 1500 Volt DC from Bombay VT to Kurla.

2.

Up to 1947

Central, Eastern & South Eastern

388

RKM electrified on Indian Railways at the time of Independance.

3.

1954-58

Eastern

142

3000 V DC electrification on HWH-Burdwan and Sheoraphulli- Tarakeshwar sections.

4.

14.12.1957

Eastern

142

Inauguration of EMU services on Howrah-Sheoraphulli section by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, first P.M. of India.

5.

1957

-

-

Adoption of 25 kV AC single phase electrification on Indian Railways.

6.

11.08.1960

South Eastern

75

First section electrified on 25 kV AC Raj Kharswan- Dongoaposi.

7.

14.10.1961

-

-

Inauguration of first 1500 V DC electric locomotive (Lokmanya) for Bombay area by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru,  first P.M. of India.

8.

September 1962

-

-

Introduction of first indigenous Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) for services.

9.

1966 - 1968

Eastern & South Eastern

-

3 kV DC converted in to 25 kV AC.

10.

07.01.1977

Eastern & Northern

1445

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Howrah.

11.

31.03.1987

Northern, Central & Western

1388

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Bombay via Western Railway.

12.

31.01.1991

Eastern, South Eastern & Central

1976

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Howrah - Bombay.

13.

31.03.1991

Northern, Central, South Central & Southern

2190

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Chennai.

14.

31.01.1992

Northern & Central

1542

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Bombay via Central Railway.

15.

1994-95

Central & South Eastern

770

Commissioning of 2x25 KV OHE system of Bina-Katni and Katni - Anuppur - Bishrampur - Chirimiri.

16.

03.02.2002

Eastern & East Central

534

Inauguration of electrified Howrah - Delhi route via Patna by then Prime Minister Shri A.B. Bajpayee.

17.

30.05.2003

East Central

92

Inauguration of Patna - Gaya section by Hon’ble President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.

18.

29.08.2003

Central & Western

306

Inauguration of Udhna - Jalgaon section.

19.

26.01.2004

Northern

137

Inauguration of Ludhiana - Amritsar section.

20.

29.11.2005

South Eastern, East Coast & South Central

1117

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Howrah - Chennai (Missing link Kharagpur - Waltair).

21.

06.08.2006

Southern

37

Inauguration of Villupuram - Pondicherry section by Chief Minister of Puducherry, Shri N. Rangasamy.

22.

30.12.2006

Southern

320

Commissioning of electrified route of Ernakulam - Trivandrum by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

23.

24.11.2007

Eastern

127

Commissioning of electrified route of Krishnanagar - Lalgola by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

24.

08.12.2007

South Central

103

Commissioning of electrified route of Tirupati - Pakala - Katpadi by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

 

 25.

07.07.2008

East Coast

24

Successful Trial of Highest OHE in the world (7.45m high contact wire) in Jakhapura-Tomka section for Double Stack Container Train operation.

5. Electrification works in progress

  
Electrification works in Progress
 

 
Project Section RKM Energised till Energised during 13-14 Balance RKM As on 1.4.14
      31.3.13
Ambala Khurja-Meerut City-Saharanpur 200 200 0 0
Ghaziabad-Meerut 47 47 0 0
Ghaziabad-Moradabad 135 2 100 33
Jallandhar-Jammutawi-Udhampur 264 232 11 21
Udhampur-Katra 25 0 6 19
Katra-Dharam 72 0 0 72
Rohtak-Bhatinda-Lehra Mohabbat 252 0 0 252
Delhi-Sarai Rohilla-Rewari 78 0 0 78
Bhubaneswar Vizianagaram-Rayagada-Titlagarh 263 0 119 144
Titlagarh -Sambhalpur-Jharsuguda incl.IB Bypass line 238 0 0 238
Singapur Road-Damanjodi 152 0 0 152
Pandabeswar-Sainthia-Pakur incl. Khana-Sainthia 208 148 60 0
Pakur-Malda Town 74 0 0 74
Katwa-Azimganj-Nalhati & Azimganj-Tildanga / New Farakka incl. Nalhati & Azimganj by pass line 200 0 0 200
Andal-Sitarampur via Jamuria - Ikhra 57 0 0 57
Lucknow Varanasi-Lohta-Janghai-Phaphamau-Unchahar incl. Phaphamau-Prayag-Allahabad 207 204 3 0
Rosa-Sitapur-Burhwal 181 0 95 86
Gorakhpur Barabanki-Gorakhpur-Chhapra Kachehari incl. Thawe-Siwan 452 406 38 8
Hajipur Chhapra Kachehari -Barauni** 305 277 0 28
Barauni-Katihar 177 151 24 2
Garwa Road-Chopan-Singrauli  257 0 0 257
New Jalpaigudi Katihar-Guwahati incl. Katihar-Barsoi 649 121 86 442
Kumedpur -Malda Town incl.Old Malda-Singhabad 79 0 40 39
Chennai Bangalore suburban area 53 52 1 0
Madurai-Tuticorin-Nagercoil 262 262 0 0
Vellore Cantt.-Villupuram 150 150 0 0
Shoranur-Mangalore-Penambur 328 116 185 27
Coimbatore -Mettupalayam  33 0 30 3
Secunderabad Lingampalli-Wadi 162 162 0 0
Gondia-Ballarshah 250 9 58 183
Kengeri-Mysore 125 48 0 77
Nallapadu- Guntakal  426 0 0 426
Jaipur Kanpur-Jhansi 240 230 10 0
Mathura-Alwar-Rewari 205 38 167 0
Rewari-Palanpur-Ahmedabad incl. Kalol-Gandhinagar-Khodiyar & Alwar-Bandikui-Jaipur-Phulera (excl. Rani-Palanpur) 843 0 0 843
Jabalpur Cheoki-Manikpur-Itarsi  incl.  Satna-Rewa  653 0 0 653
  TOTAL (CORE) 8302 2855 1033 4414
RE works with RVNL Hospet-Guntakal &  Torangallu – Ranjitpura  138 0 0 138
Obulavripalle-Krishnapatnam 113 28 0 85
Haridaspur-Paradeep 82 0 0 82
Angul-Sukinda 99 0 0 99
Amla - Chhindwara- Kalumna  257 0 37 220
Pune-Wadi-Guntakal 641 0 50 591
Yelahanka-Dharmavaram-Gooty 307 104 203 0
Titlagarh-Raipur 202 0 0 202
Rani-Palanpur 166 0 0 166
Jakhal-Hisar 79 0 0 79
Jakhal-Dhuri-Ludiana 123 0 0 123
Rajpura-Dhuri-Lehra Mohabbat 151 0 0 151
Manheru-Hisar  74 0 0 74
Rewari-Manheru (NWR) 69 0 0 69
Vijayavada-Gudivada-Bhimavaram- Narsapur-Gudivada-Machilipatnam and Bhimavaram-Narsapur (SCR) 221 0 0 221
Total 2722 132 290 2300
RE works with Zonal Railways Noli-Shahdara (NR) 10 0 0 10
Laksar-Haridwar-Raiwala-Dehradun (NR) 79 0 27 52
Narkher-Amarvati (CR) 138 0 0 138
Bardhman-Katwa (ER) 52 24 0 28
Tarkeshwar-Bishnupur (ER) 85 48 0 37
Shantipur-Krishnanagar-Nabadwip (ER) 27 13 0 14
Angul-Sambhalpur (ECoR) 156 0 0 156
Miyagam-Karjan-Dabhoi-Samlaya (WR) 96 0 0 96
TOTAL 643 85 27 531
IRCON Dharam-Baramula 195 0 0 195
   TOTAL (RVNL, Zonal Rlys. &IRCON) 3560 217 317 3026
  GRAND TOTAL 11862 3072 1350 7440

 

 

 



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