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Brief on Railway Electrification

 

1. Historical Background of Railway Electrification

Railway Electrification made a modest beginning with the inauguration of first electric train between Bombay VT and Kurla Harbour on 3rd February 1925 on then existing GIP Railway system at 1500 V DC. Heavy gradients on the Western Ghats necessitated introduction of electric traction on Central Railway upto Igatpuri on North East line and Pune on South East line. 1500 Volt DC traction was introduced on suburban section of Western Railway between Colaba and Borivili on 05.01.1928 and Madras Beach and Tambram of Southern Railway on 11.05.1931. This was primarily to meet the growing traffic in these metros. Thus, before the dawn of Independence, India had 388 KM of electrification on DC traction.

In the post Independence era, electrification of Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway was taken up on 3000 Volt DC during the First Five Year Plan period and completed in 1958. The first EMU services were inaugurated in Howrah-Sheoraphulli section by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India on 14.12.1957.

25 kV AC system of traction emerged as an economical system of electrification as a result of extensive research and trials in Europe, particularly on French Railways (SNCF). Indian Railways decided in 1957 to adopt 25 kV AC system of electrification as a standard, with SNCF as their consultant in the initial stages.

In the wake of industrial development, in the Eastern region, due to the setting up of steel plants, large scale movement of Iron and Coal, substantial growth in freight traffic, which could not be managed by steam traction, electrification and dieselisation had to be introduced in early sixties to cope up with the growing traffic.

The first section electrified on 25 kV AC system was Raj Kharswan-Dongoaposi of South Eastern Railway in the year 1960. With a view to provide continuity of traction system, Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway and Madras Beach Tambaram section of Southern Railway were converted to 25 kV AC system by 1968.

The manufacture of Electric Multiple Units (EMUs) required for Kolkata suburban services was taken up indigenously at Integral Coach Factory (ICF), Chennai and first EMU rolled out during September 1962.

Considering the various limitations in existing 1500 V DC traction systems in Central Railway and Western Railway, a decision was taken to convert to 25 kV AC traction during 1996-97. Conversion from DC traction to AC traction is under progress.

2. Organisation and setup of Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE)

Railway Electrification (RE) office was initially set up in Calcutta as PORE (Project office for Railway Electrification) during the First Five Year Plan period, when Electrification of Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway was taken up.

A General Manager was posted for the Railway Electrification Organisation set up at Calcutta in 1959. In 1961, Northern Railway Electrification office was set up at Allahabad for electrification of Mughalsarai-New Delhi section. This office was headed by an Engineer -in- Chief.

On recommendation of J. Raj Committee report in 1978, a number of Electrification works were included in the Pink Book (book containing works approved by the Parliament for execution). For proper controlling, monitoring and execution of Railway Electrification works in different Zonal Railways, the concept of Railway Electrification headquarter came into being.

Since most of the sanctioned electrification works were falling in the Central and Southern regions of the country, the headquarter of Railway Electrification was set up at Nagpur and functioned under the charge of an Additional General Manager from 1982 to 1984. Railway Electrification office was shifted to Allahabad under Additional General Manager with effect from January 1985.  A regular General Manager was posted at Central Organisation For Railway Electrification, Allahabad from July 1987 on wards which is continuing till date.

The headquarters office of Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE) is headed by General Manager and assisted by Electrical, S&T, Civil, Store, Personnel, Vigilance and associate Finance departments. Presently, nine RE project offices are functioning viz. Ambala, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Lucknow, Jaipur, Secunderabad, Gorakhpur, Danapur, New Jalpaigudi and Jabalpur each headed by a Chief Project Manager.

3. Progress of Railway Electrification

In the wake of industrial development, in the Eastern region, due to the setting up of steel plants, large scale movement of Iron and Coal, substantial growth in freight traffic, which could not be managed by steam traction, electrification and dieselisation had to be introduced in early sixties to cope up with the growing traffic. After the completion of Second Five Year Plan, Indian Railways had electrified 216 RKM on 25 kV AC. During the Third Plan, along with considerable indigenisation, electrification was extended over another 1678 RKM. The pace of electrification, however, slowed down until the oil crisis of seventies. The second oil crisis in particular brought to the fore the need for evolving a long term policy for electrification to reduce the dependence of Railways on petroleum based energy.

In the context of shift from petroleum based energy in transport sector, the Secretaries Committee on energy headed by Cabinet Secretary decided in July 1980 that Indian Railways should speed up electrification at a pace of 1000 Route Kms/year. Accordingly, the pace of electrification was considerably speeded up and Indian Railways achieved progress of 2812 RKM during the Seventh Plan, 2708 RKM during Eighth Plan and 2484 RKM during Ninth Plan, 1810 RKM during Tenth Plan, 4556 RKM during Eleventh Plan. During the two years of Twelth Plan 2667 RKM has been electrified.

Six major trunk routes of Golden Quadrilateral and diagonals viz Delhi - Delhi - Mumbai via Central and Western Railways, Delhi - Chennai, Mumbai - Calcutta and Howrah - Chennai have already been fully electrified. Electrification of remaining Mumbai - Chennai Route (Guntakal - Pune) is in progress.

A total of 26269 RKM has been electrified up to 31.03.2015 on Indian Railways, mostly on heavy density routes. This constitutes about 39.92% of total Indian Railway network. At present, approximately 51.2% of passenger traffic and 65.4% freight traffic is operated on electric traction. The XIIth Plan target for electrification was set at 6500 RKM and realized is 4042 RKM.

4. Important landmarks of Railway Electrification:

S.No.

Date & Year

Railway

RKMs

Landmarks

1.

03.02.1925

Central

16

First electric train on 1500 Volt DC from Bombay VT to Kurla.

2.

Up to 1947

Central, Eastern & South Eastern

388

RKM electrified on Indian Railways at the time of Independance.

3.

1954-58

Eastern

142

3000 V DC electrification on HWH-Burdwan and Sheoraphulli- Tarakeshwar sections.

4.

14.12.1957

Eastern

142

Inauguration of EMU services on Howrah-Sheoraphulli section by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, first P.M. of India.

5.

1957

-

-

Adoption of 25 kV AC single phase electrification on Indian Railways.

6.

11.08.1960

South Eastern

75

First section electrified on 25 kV AC Raj Kharswan- Dongoaposi.

7.

14.10.1961

-

-

Inauguration of first 1500 V DC electric locomotive (Lokmanya) for Bombay area by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru,  first P.M. of India.

8.

September 1962

-

-

Introduction of first indigenous Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) for services.

9.

1966 - 1968

Eastern & South Eastern

-

3 kV DC converted in to 25 kV AC.

10.

07.01.1977

Eastern & Northern

1445

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Howrah.

11.

31.03.1987

Northern, Central & Western

1388

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Bombay via Western Railway.

12.

31.01.1991

Eastern, South Eastern & Central

1976

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Howrah - Bombay.

13.

31.03.1991

Northern, Central, South Central & Southern

2190

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Chennai.

14.

31.01.1992

Northern & Central

1542

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Bombay via Central Railway.

15.

1994-95

Central & South Eastern

770

Commissioning of 2x25 KV OHE system of Bina-Katni and Katni - Anuppur - Bishrampur - Chirimiri.

16.

03.02.2002

Eastern & East Central

534

Inauguration of electrified Howrah - Delhi route via Patna by then Prime Minister Shri A.B. Bajpayee.

17.

30.05.2003

East Central

92

Inauguration of Patna - Gaya section by Hon’ble President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.

18.

29.08.2003

Central & Western

306

Inauguration of Udhna - Jalgaon section.

19.

26.01.2004

Northern

137

Inauguration of Ludhiana - Amritsar section.

20.

29.11.2005

South Eastern, East Coast & South Central

1117

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Howrah - Chennai (Missing link Kharagpur - Waltair).

21.

06.08.2006

Southern

37

Inauguration of Villupuram - Pondicherry section by Chief Minister of Puducherry, Shri N. Rangasamy.

22.

30.12.2006

Southern

320

Commissioning of electrified route of Ernakulam - Trivandrum by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

23.

24.11.2007

Eastern

127

Commissioning of electrified route of Krishnanagar - Lalgola by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

24.

08.12.2007

South Central

103

Commissioning of electrified route of Tirupati - Pakala - Katpadi by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

 

 25.

07.07.2008

East Coast

24

Successful Trial of Highest OHE in the world (7.45m high contact wire) in Jakhapura-Tomka section for Double Stack Container Train operation.

5. Electrification works in progress

  
Electrification works in Progress
   

Project Section RKM Energised up to 31.03.16 Balance as on 01.04.16
ambala Jalandhar - Jammu Tawi incl. Jammu Tawi - Udhampur-Katra 301 301 0
Rohtak-Bhatinda-Lehra Mohabbat 252 186.85 65.15
Delhi-Sarai Rohilla-Rewari 78 0 78
Una-Himachal-Amb-Andaura 25 0 25
Hissar-Bhatinda-Suratgarh-Phalodi 636 0 636
Rohtak-Bhiwani 48 0 48
Noli-Tapri 143 0 143
Bhubaneswar Vizianagaram-Rayagada-Titlagarh 263 263 0
Titlagarh -Sambhalpur-Jharsuguda incl.IB Bypass line 238 46.6 191.4
Singapur Road-Damanjodi 152 0 152
Kolkata Pandabeswar-Sainthia-Pakur incl. Khana-Sainthia 205 205 0
Kumedpur-Pakur-Malda Town 74 33 41
Katwa-Azimganj-Nalhati & Azimganj-Tildanga / New Farakka incl. Nalhati & Azimganj by pass line 200 0 200
Andal-Sitarampur via Jamuria - Ikhra 57 57 0
Bonidanga Link Cabin / Bonidanga-Barharwa- Sahibganj-Kiul incl. Tinpahar-Rajmahal 247 0 247
LKO Rosa-Sitapur-Burhwal 181 181 0
Jhansi-Manikpur incl. Khairar-Bhimsen 409 0 409
Zafrabad-Akbarpur-Tanda 101 0 101
Lalitpur-Udaipura 32 0 32
Gorakhpur Barabanki-Gorakhpur-Chhapra Kachehari incl. Thawe-Siwan 739 739 0
DNR Barauni-Katihar 177 177 0
Garwa Road-Chopan-Singrauli  257 123.1 133.9
Valmiki Nagar-Narkatiaganj-Sugauli-Muzaffarpur incl. Sugauli-Raxaul 240 0 240
Koderma-Hazaribagh-Barkakana-Ranchi 203 0 203
Manpur-Tilaiyya -Bakhtiyarpur 132 10 122
Kiul-Tilaiya 87 0 87
Gorakhpur Cant-Kaptanganj-Valmikinagar 96 0 96
Ranchi-Lohardagga-Tori 116 0 116
Mansi-Saharasa-Dauram Madhepura -Pemea -Katihar 172 0 172
Chunar-Chopan 100 0 100
New Jalpaigudi Katihar-New Bongaigaon incl. Katihar-Barsoi 267 267 0
Kumedpur -Malda Town incl.Old Malda-Singhabad 84 84 0
Chennai Shoranur-Mangalore-Penambur 328 315 13
Erode-Karur-Tiruchhirapalli & Salem-Karur-Dindigul 300 0 300
Tiruchchirapalli-Nagaapttinam-Karaikkal Port. 153 0 153
SC Gondia-Ballarshah 250 233 17
Kengeri-Mysore 125 125 0
Nallapadu- Guntakal  426 373 53
Peddapalli-Lingampet Jagtiyal 83 0 83
Pagidipalli-Nallapadu 285 0 285
Yeshwantpur-Chikbanwar 8 8 0
Jaipur Manmad-Mudkhed-Dhone 868 0 868
Rewari-Palanpur-Ahmedabad incl. Kalol-Gandhinagar-Khodiyar & Alwar-Bandikui-Jaipur-Phulera (excl. Rani-Palanpur) 850 230 620
Idgah-Achnera-Mathura & Achnera-Bharatpur 87 0 87
Phalodi-Jodhpur-Bhildi incl. Phalodi-Jaisalmer 594 0 594
Ajmer-Berach-Mavli-Udaipur 294 0 294
Jabalpur Smakhiyali-Gandhidham-Kandla Port-Mundra Port 63 0 63
Cheoki-Manikpur-Itarsi  incl.  Satna-Rewa  655 533.45 121.55
Singrauli-Katni 260 0 260
Gondia-Nainpur-Jabalpur 229 0 229
Vijaipur-Maksi 188 0 188
  TOTAL  12358 4491 7867
         
B. RVNL  Work      
1 Yelahanka-Dharmavaram-Gooty 306 306 0
2 Daund-Manmad 255 255 0
3 Amla-Chindwara-Kalumna 257 145 112
4 Manheru-Hisar  74 60 14
5 Raipur-Titlagarh 203 45 158
6 Guntakal-Bellary-Hospet 138 0 138
7 Rani-Palanpur 166 0 166
8 Jhakal-Hisar 79 0 79
9 Jakhal-Dhuri-Ludiana 123 0 74
10 Rajpura-Dhuri-Lehra Mohabbat 151 0 151
11 Manheru-Hisar  74 0 330
12 Chhapra-Varanasi-Allahabad 330 0 78
13 Raninagar-New Bongaigaon-Guwahati  382 0 214
14 Ghazipur-Aunrihar-Manduadih 78 0 56
15 Hospet-Hubli-Vasco da Gama 346    
16 Utratia-Rai Bareli-Amethi-Janghai 214 0 346
17 Guntakal-Kalluru 40 0 40
18 Aurihar-Jaunpur 60 0 60
19 Pune-Miraj-Kolhapur 326 0 326
20 Miraj-Londa 189 0 189
Sub Total 3791 811 2531
Other Major works with RVNL
1 Pune-Wadi-Guntakal 641 386 255
2 Rewari-Manheru 69 50 19
3 Vijaywada-Gudiwada-Manhipatanam 221 0 221
4 Obulavaripalle-Krishnapatanam 113 28 85
5 Haridaspur-Paradeep 82 0 82
6 Angul-Sukinda 99 0 99
Sub Total 1225 464 761
C. Zonal Railways      
1.CR Noli-Shahdara  10 10 0
2.ER Laksar-Haridwar-Raiwala-Dehradun  79 79 0
3.ER Narkher-Amarvati  138 43 95
4.ER Bardhman-Katwa  52 24 28
5.ECoR Tarkeshwar-Bishnupur  85 48 37
6.WR Shantipur-Krishnanagar-Nabadwip  27 13 14
7.CR Angul-Sambhalpur  156 83 73
8.CR Miyagam-Karjan-Dabhoi-Samlaya  96 0 96
9.WR Jasai-JNPT 9 0 9
10.CR Chalisgaon-Dhule 56 0 56
11.CR Pen-Roha 40 0 40
12.NR Beas-Govindwal sahib-Taran Taran-Amritsar 72 0 72
13.CR Panvel-Pen-Thal 75 0 75
14.WR Indore-Mhow 21 0 21
15.CR Jasai-Uran 10 0 10
16.NER Aurihar-Bhatani 125 0 125
17.NER Shahganj-Mau-& Phephna-Indara 150 0 150
  TOTAL 1201 300 901
D. IRCON      
1 Dharam-Baramula 195 0 195
2 Ringus-Jaipur-Sawai Madhopur 188 0 188
3 Mathura-Kasganj-Kalyanpur 338 0 721
  Total 721 0 1104
   TOTAL (RVNL, Zonal Rlys. &IRCON) 6938    
  GRAND TOTAL(RE,RVNL,Zonal Rlys &  IRCON) 19296    

 

   

 



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