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Brief on Railway Electrification

 

1. Historical Background of Railway Electrification

Railway Electrification made a modest beginning with the inauguration of first electric train between Bombay VT and Kurla Harbour on 3rd February 1925 on then existing GIP Railway system at 1500 V DC. Heavy gradients on the Western Ghats necessitated introduction of electric traction on Central Railway upto Igatpuri on North East line and Pune on South East line. 1500 Volt DC traction was introduced on suburban section of Western Railway between Colaba and Borivili on 05.01.1928 and Madras Beach and Tambram of Southern Railway on 11.05.1931. This was primarily to meet the growing traffic in these metros. Thus, before the dawn of Independence, India had 388 KM of electrification on DC traction.

In the post Independence era, electrification of Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway was taken up on 3000 Volt DC during the First Five Year Plan period and completed in 1958. The first EMU services were inaugurated in Howrah-Sheoraphulli section by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India on 14.12.1957.

25 kV AC system of traction emerged as an economical system of electrification as a result of extensive research and trials in Europe, particularly on French Railways (SNCF). Indian Railways decided in 1957 to adopt 25 kV AC system of electrification as a standard, with SNCF as their consultant in the initial stages.

In the wake of industrial development, in the Eastern region, due to the setting up of steel plants, large scale movement of Iron and Coal, substantial growth in freight traffic, which could not be managed by steam traction, electrification and dieselisation had to be introduced in early sixties to cope up with the growing traffic.

The first section electrified on 25 kV AC system was Raj Kharswan-Dongoaposi of South Eastern Railway in the year 1960. With a view to provide continuity of traction system, Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway and Madras Beach Tambaram section of Southern Railway were converted to 25 kV AC system by 1968.

The manufacture of Electric Multiple Units (EMUs) required for Kolkata suburban services was taken up indigenously at Integral Coach Factory (ICF), Chennai and first EMU rolled out during September 1962.

Considering the various limitations in existing 1500 V DC traction systems in Central Railway and Western Railway, a decision was taken to convert to 25 kV AC traction during 1996-97. Conversion from DC traction to AC traction is under progress.

2. Organisation and setup of Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE)

Railway Electrification (RE) office was initially set up in Calcutta as PORE (Project office for Railway Electrification) during the First Five Year Plan period, when Electrification of Howrah-Burdwan section of Eastern Railway was taken up.

A General Manager was posted for the Railway Electrification Organisation set up at Calcutta in 1959. In 1961, Northern Railway Electrification office was set up at Allahabad for electrification of Mughalsarai-New Delhi section. This office was headed by an Engineer -in- Chief.

On recommendation of J. Raj Committee report in 1978, a number of Electrification works were included in the Pink Book (book containing works approved by the Parliament for execution). For proper controlling, monitoring and execution of Railway Electrification works in different Zonal Railways, the concept of Railway Electrification headquarter came into being.

Since most of the sanctioned electrification works were falling in the Central and Southern regions of the country, the headquarter of Railway Electrification was set up at Nagpur and functioned under the charge of an Additional General Manager from 1982 to 1984. Railway Electrification office was shifted to Allahabad under Additional General Manager with effect from January 1985.  A regular General Manager was posted at Central Organisation For Railway Electrification, Allahabad from July 1987 on wards which is continuing till date.

The headquarters office of Central Organisation for Railway Electrification (CORE) is headed by General Manager and assisted by Electrical, S&T, Civil, Store, Personnel, Vigilance and associate Finance departments. Presently, nine RE project offices are functioning viz. Ambala, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Lucknow, Jaipur, Secunderabad, Gorakhpur, Danapur, New Jalpaigudi and Jabalpur each headed by a Chief Project Manager.

3. Progress of Railway Electrification

In the wake of industrial development, in the Eastern region, due to the setting up of steel plants, large scale movement of Iron and Coal, substantial growth in freight traffic, which could not be managed by steam traction, electrification and dieselisation had to be introduced in early sixties to cope up with the growing traffic. After the completion of Second Five Year Plan, Indian Railways had electrified 216 RKM on 25 kV AC. During the Third Plan, along with considerable indigenisation, electrification was extended over another 1678 RKM. The pace of electrification, however, slowed down until the oil crisis of seventies. The second oil crisis in particular brought to the fore the need for evolving a long term policy for electrification to reduce the dependence of Railways on petroleum based energy.

In the context of shift from petroleum based energy in transport sector, the Secretaries Committee on energy headed by Cabinet Secretary decided in July 1980 that Indian Railways should speed up electrification at a pace of 1000 Route Kms/year. Accordingly, the pace of electrification was considerably speeded up and Indian Railways achieved progress of 2812 RKM during the Seventh Plan, 2708 RKM during Eighth Plan and 2484 RKM during Ninth Plan, 1810 RKM during Tenth Plan, 4556 RKM during Eleventh Plan. During the two years of Twelth Plan 2667 RKM has been electrified.

Six major trunk routes of Golden Quadrilateral and diagonals viz Delhi - Delhi - Mumbai via Central and Western Railways, Delhi - Chennai, Mumbai - Calcutta and Howrah - Chennai have already been fully electrified. Electrification of remaining Mumbai - Chennai Route (Guntakal - Pune) is in progress.

A total of 26269 RKM has been electrified up to 31.03.2015 on Indian Railways, mostly on heavy density routes. This constitutes about 39.92% of total Indian Railway network. At present, approximately 51.2% of passenger traffic and 65.4% freight traffic is operated on electric traction. The XIIth Plan target for electrification was set at 6500 RKM and realized is 4042 RKM.

4. Important landmarks of Railway Electrification:

S.No.

Date & Year

Railway

RKMs

Landmarks

1.

03.02.1925

Central

16

First electric train on 1500 Volt DC from Bombay VT to Kurla.

2.

Up to 1947

Central, Eastern & South Eastern

388

RKM electrified on Indian Railways at the time of Independance.

3.

1954-58

Eastern

142

3000 V DC electrification on HWH-Burdwan and Sheoraphulli- Tarakeshwar sections.

4.

14.12.1957

Eastern

142

Inauguration of EMU services on Howrah-Sheoraphulli section by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, first P.M. of India.

5.

1957

-

-

Adoption of 25 kV AC single phase electrification on Indian Railways.

6.

11.08.1960

South Eastern

75

First section electrified on 25 kV AC Raj Kharswan- Dongoaposi.

7.

14.10.1961

-

-

Inauguration of first 1500 V DC electric locomotive (Lokmanya) for Bombay area by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru,  first P.M. of India.

8.

September 1962

-

-

Introduction of first indigenous Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) for services.

9.

1966 - 1968

Eastern & South Eastern

-

3 kV DC converted in to 25 kV AC.

10.

07.01.1977

Eastern & Northern

1445

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Howrah.

11.

31.03.1987

Northern, Central & Western

1388

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Bombay via Western Railway.

12.

31.01.1991

Eastern, South Eastern & Central

1976

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Howrah - Bombay.

13.

31.03.1991

Northern, Central, South Central & Southern

2190

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Chennai.

14.

31.01.1992

Northern & Central

1542

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Delhi - Bombay via Central Railway.

15.

1994-95

Central & South Eastern

770

Commissioning of 2x25 KV OHE system of Bina-Katni and Katni - Anuppur - Bishrampur - Chirimiri.

16.

03.02.2002

Eastern & East Central

534

Inauguration of electrified Howrah - Delhi route via Patna by then Prime Minister Shri A.B. Bajpayee.

17.

30.05.2003

East Central

92

Inauguration of Patna - Gaya section by Hon’ble President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.

18.

29.08.2003

Central & Western

306

Inauguration of Udhna - Jalgaon section.

19.

26.01.2004

Northern

137

Inauguration of Ludhiana - Amritsar section.

20.

29.11.2005

South Eastern, East Coast & South Central

1117

Commissioning of electrified trunk route of Howrah - Chennai (Missing link Kharagpur - Waltair).

21.

06.08.2006

Southern

37

Inauguration of Villupuram - Pondicherry section by Chief Minister of Puducherry, Shri N. Rangasamy.

22.

30.12.2006

Southern

320

Commissioning of electrified route of Ernakulam - Trivandrum by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

23.

24.11.2007

Eastern

127

Commissioning of electrified route of Krishnanagar - Lalgola by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

24.

08.12.2007

South Central

103

Commissioning of electrified route of Tirupati - Pakala - Katpadi by Minister for Railways Shri Lalu Prasad.

 

 25.

07.07.2008

East Coast

24

Successful Trial of Highest OHE in the world (7.45m high contact wire) in Jakhapura-Tomka section for Double Stack Container Train operation.

5. Electrification works in progress

  
Electrification works in Progress
   

Project

Section

RKM

Energised till

Energised during 14-15

Balance RKM As on 1.4.15

 

 

 

31.3.15

Ambala

Khurja-Meerut City-Saharanpur

200

200

0

0

Ghaziabad-Meerut

47

47

0

0

Ghaziabad-Moradabad

135

135

33

0

Jallandhar-Jammutawi-Udhampur

264

264

21

0

Udhampur-Katra

25

25

19

0

Katra-Dharam

72

0

0

72

Rohtak-Bhatinda-Lehra Mohabbat

252

0

0

252

Delhi-Sarai Rohilla-Rewari

78

0

0

78

Una Himachal –Amb-Andhaura

25

0

0

25

Hissar-Bhatinda-Suratgarh-Phalodi

650

0

0

650

Rohtak - Bhiwni

48

0

0

48

Bhubaneswar

Vizianagaram-Rayagada-Titlagarh

263

263

144

0

Titlagarh -Sambhalpur-Jharsuguda incl.IB Bypass line

238

10

10

228

Singapur Road-Damanjodi

152

0

0

152

Pandabeswar-Sainthia-Pakur incl. Khana-Sainthia

208

208

0

0

Pakur-Malda Town

74

0

0

74

Katwa-Azimganj-Nalhati & Azimganj-Tildanga / New Farakka incl. Nalhati & Azimganj by pass line

200

0

0

200

Andal-Sitarampur via Jamuria - Ikhra

57

45

45

12

Bonidanga link cabin /Bonidanga Barharwa-Sahibganj –Kiul – incl. Tinpahar - Rajmahal

247

0

0

247

Lucknow

Varanasi-Lohta-Janghai-Phaphamau-Unchahar incl. Phaphamau-Prayag-Allahabad

207

207

0

0

Rosa-Sitapur-Burhwal

181

181

86

0

Jhansi – Manikpur  incl.Khairar - Bhimsen

409

0

0

409

Zafrabad – Akbarpur - Tanda

101

0

0

101

Lalitpur - Udaipura

32

0

0

32

Gorakhpur

Barabanki-Gorakhpur-Chhapra Kachehari incl. Thawe-Siwan

452

452

8

0

Danapur

Chhapra Kachehari -Barauni

277

277

0

0

Barauni-Katihar

177

177

2

0

Garwa Road-Chopan-Singrauli

257

80

80

177

Valmiki Nagar-Narkatiaganj-Sugauli-Muzaffarpur incl. Sugauli-Raxaul

240

0

0

240

Koderma-Hazaribagh-Barkakana-Ranchi

203

0

0

203

Manpur-Talaiya-Bakhtiyarpur

132

0

0

132

Kiul - Talaiya

87

0

0

87

New Jalpaigudi

Katihar-New Bongaigaon incl.Katihar-Barsoi

488

256

52

232

Kumedpur -Malda Town incl.Old Malda-Singhabad

84

84

44

0

Chennai

Bangalore suburban area

53

53

0

0

Shoranur-Mangalore-Penambur

328

315

14

13

Coimbatore -Mettupalayam

33

33

3

0

Erod-Kanur-Tiruchchirapalli & Salem-Kanur-Dindigul

300

0

0

300

Tiruchchirapalli-Nagaapttinam-Karaikkal Port

153

0

0

153

Secunderabad

Lingampalli-Wadi

162

162

0

0

Gondia-Ballarshah

250

123

56

127

Kengeri-Mysore

125

75

27

50

Nallapadu- Guntakal

426

155

155

271

Guntakal - Kalluru

40

0

0

40

Peddapalli-Lingampet-Jagtiyal

83

0

0

83

Peddapalli - Nallapadu

285

0

0

285

Manmad – Mudkhed - Dhone

868

0

0

868

Jaipur

Alwar - Rewari

82

82

0

0

Rewari-Palanpur-Ahmedabad incl. Kalol-Gandhinagar-Khodiyar & Alwar-Bandikui-Jaipur-Phulera (excl. Rani-Palanpur)

843

0

0

843

Idgah-Achnera-Mathura & Achnera-Bharatpur

87

0

0

87

Phalodi-Jodhpur-Bhildi incl.Phalodi-Jaisalmer

580

0

0

580

Ajmer -Berach- Mavli-Udaipur

294

0

0

294

Jabalpur

Cheoki-Manikpur-Itarsi  incl.  Satna-Rewa

653

290

290

363

 

Singrauli - Katni

260

0

0

260

 

TOTAL (CORE)

12467

4199

1089

8268

RE works with RVNL

Manmad-Daund incl. Puntamba-Sirdi

255

255

68

0

Hospet-Guntakal &  Torangallu – Ranjitpura

138

0

0

138

Obulavripalle-Krishnapatnam

113

28

79

85

Haridaspur-Paradeep

82

0

0

82

Angul-Sukinda

99

0

0

99

Amla - Chhindwara- Kalumna

257

97

60

160

Pune-Wadi-Guntakal

641

254

4

387

Yelahanka-Dharmavaram-Gooty

306

306

53

0

Titlagarh-Raipur

203

0

0

203

Rani-Palanpur

166

0

0

166

Jakhal-Hisar

79

0

0

79

Jakhal-Dhuri-Ludiana

123

0

0

123

Rajpura-Dhuri-Lehra Mohabbat

151

0

0

151

Manheru-Hisar

74

0

0

74

Rewari-Manheru (NWR)

69

0

0

69

Chhapra-Varansi-Allahabad

330

0

0

330

New Bongaigaon-Guwahati

161

0

0

161

Gazipur-Aunrihar-Manduadih

78

0

0

78

Utratia-Rai Bareli-Amethi-Janghai

214

0

0

214

Vijayavada-Gudivada-Bhimavaram- Narsapur-Gudivada-Machilipatnam and Bhimavaram-Narsapur (SCR)

221

0

0

221

Total

4106

940

264

3166

RE works with Zonal Railways

Noli-Shahdara (NR)

10

0

0

10

Laksar-Haridwar-Raiwala-Dehradun (NR)

79

49

22

30

Narkher-Amarvati (CR)

138

0

0

138

Bardhman-Katwa (ER)

52

24

0

28

Tarkeshwar-Bishnupur (ER)

85

48

0

37

Shantipur-Krishnanagar-Nabadwip (ER)

27

13

0

14

Angul-Sambhalpur (ECoR)

156

0

0

156

Miyagam-Karjan-Dabhoi-Samlaya (WR)

96

0

0

96

Jasai-JNPT

9

0

0

9

Panvel-Pen-Thal

75

0

0

75

Indore-Mhow

21

0

0

21

TOTAL

748

134

22

614

IRCON

Dharam-Baramula

195

0

0

195

 

Ahmedabad-Rajkot

233

0

0

233

 

Mehsana-Viramgram-Samkhiyali

292

0

0

292

 

Ratlam-Nimach-Chanderia-Kota

348

0

0

348

 

Total

1068

0

0

1068

 

 TOTAL (RVNL, Zonal Rlys. &IRCON)

5922

1074

286

4848

 

GRAND TOTAL

18389

5273

1375

13116

   

 



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